Many Scanning Probe based measurements have been developed to characterize local properties related to transport. Some of the more interesting access systems in the presence of perturbations, such as with temperature or field variations or during current flow. However, there exists a potential to examine fundamental mechanisms of transport if the frequency dependence of local properties can be quantified. The approach outlined here utilizes principles of impedance spectroscopy and is performed with a conductive AFM tip.
Nanoimpedance Microscopy/Spectroscopy (NIM) has both imaging and spectroscopic modes that differentiate processes at interfaces and defects by the time constants associated with local relaxations.An equivalent circuit incorporating all possible relaxation processes in the system is constructed and is used to fit the experimental data.